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Researcher of English Culture.
 

   

43 AD Roman Occupation

130
 
Can anything good come out of Londinium? After invasion by Emperor Claudius, Britannia becomes the northernmost Roman colony. Just after the life of Christ, Britannia was comparable to Judea as a far-off province paying tribute to the Empire but also developing ties of trade and culture with Rome. Latin became the common language, and evidence of achievements from the period can still be seen in Roman Bath or Hadrian’s Wall.
 

 

Norman Conquest

1066
 
1066 and All That. After so many invasions and truces, it was Duke William of Normandy who would change English culture most radically. After his victory at Hastings over the son of the late English king, William the Conqueror ensured his hard fought victory by building castles across Britain. In strongholds like Windsor Castle or the Tower of London, he placed faithful Norman barons who would control local lands and churches, establishing French as the official language of government, law, and literature. 
 

OLD ENGLISH PERIOD (c. 450-1066)

445
 
From Brutus to Beowulf. After almost four centuries of Roman rule, trade, and relative peace, the approach of a new wave of raiders to the British coasts signaled an important shift. The “Old English Period” covers over 600 years and includes piecemeal invasions by more than a dozen Germanic and Scandinavian groups. Mediterranean culture and civilization would be driven out by tribal allegiance, blood feuds, and heroic sagas. Roman merchants and administrators were followed by Anglo Saxon warlords and Viking raiders. The noble virtue of Virgil’s Aeneid was finally replaced by the violence and retribution of Beowulf. 

  

Anglo Saxon conquest

450
 
The Original Melting Pot. This invasion was hardly as unified as it sounds. Following the Roman retreat, a number of Germanic tribes converged on England, bringing widely divergent cultures and languages with them. The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes were concentrated in England while the Picts and Scots battled for the north and the Celts dominated Ireland and Wales. 

 

 

St. Augustine brings Christianity
597
 
A Peaceful Invasion. Perhaps the most significant landing force during Britain’s first millennium came Easter of 597 in the form of 40 missionaries sent from Pope Gregory I. As Bede says, “Gregory, prompted by divine inspiration, sent a servant of God named Augustine and several more God-fearing monks with him to preach the word of God to the English race.” After converting King Ethelbert, Augustine became the first archbishop of the English church at Canterbury.

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