OLD ENGLISH PERIOD (c. 450-1066)
From Brutus to Beowulf. After almost four centuries of Roman rule, trade, and relative peace, the approach of a new wave of raiders to the British coasts signaled an important shift. The “Old English Period” covers over 600 years and includes piecemeal invasions by more than a dozen Germanic and Scandinavian groups. Mediterranean culture and civilization would be driven out by tribal allegiance, blood feuds, and heroic sagas. Roman merchants and administrators were followed by Anglo Saxon warlords and Viking raiders. The noble virtue of Virgil’s Aeneid was finally replaced by the violence and retribution of Beowulf.