Countryside of Bath.                                                                              




Bath - click here

Is built on the site of Britain's only natural hot springs. It was the Romans who first tapped into this unique source and constructed a network of luxurious baths. Amazingly, they remain the best-preserved Roman baths in the world. Even better than in Rome itself! Bath's importance to world heritage focuses on its remarkably well-preserved Roman remains and baths, which blend seamlessly with elegant 18th-century architecture.

A cidade de  Bath.

 A importância de Bath para o patrimônio mundial se concentra em sua extraordinariamente bem preservadas ruínas romanas e os banhos, que combinam perfeitamente com a elegante arquitetura do século XVIII. Bath é construída em um local da Grã-Bretanha onde se encontram apenas fontes termais. Foram os Romanos que primeiro aproveitaram esta fonte única e construíram uma rede de luxuosos banhos. Por incrível que pareça, eles continuam a ser os banhos romanos mais bem preservados do mundo. Ainda melhor do que na própria Roma!

Texto aguardando tradução.

English nationalism.


A combination of external factors made England more inward-looking and more dissonant after 1200.

Internationally the crusading ideal was weakening. The Battle of Hattin and the recapture of Jerusalem by Muslims in 1187 were considerable blows to western hopes. Richard I's subsequent failure to recapture the city in his campaign against Saladin was discouraging.

Worse still, the crusading ideal was fractured in 1204 with the siege and capture of Christian Constantinople by a crusading force destined for infidel Egypt, and led by Venetians. Crusading never recovered.

John's loss of French lands soon after 1200 also made England more inward-looking and frustrated.

Population continued to rise in the 1200s, primogeniture became more established and there were many younger warrior sons looking for lands and glory.

Henry III (1216 - 1272) was not a soldierly king. His half-hearted campaigns in France were unsuccessful in regaining lands lost by his father, John. By the Treaty of Paris (1259) he admitted failure and secured remote Gascony by giving up claims to lands in northern France, including iconic Normandy.

Henry III's reign witnessed many closer links with France, where Louis IX (St Louis) was his brother-in-law.

French culture was echoed in Britain, especially in Gothic architecture. But despite Frenchness of manners and names, English barons became increasingly conscious of their Englishness, which they declared in anti-foreign attitudes which focused on immigrant courtiers.

It is no accident that scholars have dubbed the spare, simple Gothic architecture of the 13th century 'Early English', epitomised by Salisbury Cathedral, largely built between 1220 and 1258.



Conwy Castle in Carnarvonshire, north west Wales  ©


(Castelo de Conwy em Carnarvonshire, Gales noroeste)


Old English:


Old English is the language that was spoken the middle of the fifth century to the middle of the twelfth century in what is now England and southern Scotland. During this time the language changed and took in words from other language.

There were four main dialects of Old English:

- West Saxon

- Kentish

- Mercian

- Northumbrian

The dialects had small differences of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Unlike the other invaders,the Anglo-Saxons kept their own language and  did not learn the language of the British Celtc. They did not take many Celtc words into their dialects either; only about twenty Celtc words are found in Old English. The Anglo-Saxons borrowed some Celtc worrds for parts of the countryside which were new to them:

For example:

- The word crag and tor meaning a high rock, and cumb for a deep valley.

- The names of some English cities, London and Leeds for example, are Celtc.

- And the word dubris, wihich meant water, became Dover.

- Avon, Esk, Ouse, and Thames is also Celtc, meaning dark river.




Inglês Arcaico era o idioma falado no meio do século V a meados do século XII no que é hoje a Inglaterra e a Escócia do sul. Durante esse tempo, a linguagem mudou e pegou emprestado palavras de outras línguas.




Havia quatro principais dialetos do Antigo Inglês:


- West Saxon


- Kentish


- Mércia


- Northumbrian


Os dialetos tinham pequenas diferenças de gramática, vocabulário e pronúncia. Ao contrário dos outros invasores, os anglo-saxões mantinham a sua própria língua e se recusavam a aprender a língua do Celta Britânico. Eles não tomaram muitas palavras Celta para seu dialeto ou, apenas cerca de vinte palavras Celtas são encontrados no Inglês Arcaico. Os Anglo-saxões pegarão algumas palavras Celtas do interior da Inglaterra que eram novas para eles:


Por exemplo:


- A palavra crag e Tor significam alto de uma rocha, e cumb, vale profundo.


- Os nomes de algumas cidades Inglês, London e Leeds, por exemplo, são Celta.


- E a palavra Dubris, que significava água, tornou-se Dover.


Alguns nomes Celta de rio sobrevivem até hoje:

 - Avon, Esk, Ouse e Thames também Celta, significando rio escuro.


Livro: The History of the English Language

Autor: Brigit Viney.

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